how does quinoa grow

Let’s just say 200 seeds does not equal 200 plants! In eastern North America, it is susceptible to a leaf miner that may reduce crop success. Quinoa grows to 4 feet tall (1.2 m) in dry areas, but can grow twice as tall with abundant rainfall. [15], Chenopodium quinoa is believed to have been domesticated in the Peruvian Andes from wild or weed populations of the same species. However, it is generally undemanding and altitude-hardy; it is grown from coastal regions to over 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in the Andes near the equator, with most of the cultivars being grown between 2,500 m (8,200 ft) and 4,000 m (13,000 ft). [6], Rising quinoa prices over the period 2006 to 2017 may have reduced affordability of traditional consumers to consume quinoa. The best recipes, kitchen tips and genius food facts. Propagation and Planting Quinoa. And whereas it almost disappeared, the species survived thanks to indigenous small-scale growers who cultivated it in Peru and Bolivia, and in, At present, a fourth bottleneck event is expected, as traditional farmers migrate from rural zones to urban centres, which exposes quinoa to the risk of further, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 09:24. It’s … The objective was to draw the world’s attention to the role that quinoa could play in providing food security, nutrition and poverty eradication in support of achieving Millennium Development Goals. It is possible to grow a rotation of amaranth and quinoa in one year. ), and originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations named 2013 the International Year of the Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Jatia researched farms online and had the seeds picked up from a relative visiting the country. If you don’t already know, you’re about to. [13] The fruits (seeds) are about 2 mm (1⁄16 in) in diameter and of various colors — from white to red or black, depending on the cultivar. has changed greatly, mainly by human influence, convenience and preference. Morton has been growing and breeding quinoa since 1984. [21][22] In South America, the saponins have many uses, including their use as a detergent for clothing and washing, and as a folk medicine antiseptic for skin injuries.[21]. Quinoa is a warm-weather crop, so it requires full sun. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; /ˈkiːnwɑː/ or /kɪˈnoʊ.ə/, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa)[2] is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. [46][47][43], The growth of quinoa consumption in nonindigenous regions has raised concerns over food security, such as unsustainably intensive farming of the crop, expansion of farming into ecologically fragile ecosystems, threatening both the sustainability of producer agriculture and the biodiversity of quinoa. [23] The risks associated with quinoa are minimal, provided those parts are properly prepared and the leaves are not eaten to excess. It needs about 10 inches of water during the growth period. Virtually all Quinoa sold in North America as food already has the saponine removed. [45][43] State regulation and enforcement is also important. Quinoa thrives in cooler weather, and is extremely drought tolerant. Cinthya Verastegui Effel, 'Implications of the Quinoa Boom on the Farmers’ Income: How do changes in the quinoa market structure mediate quinoa farmers’ income' (unpublished MA thesis, Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University, 2012), CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020 (, Controlled Ecological Life Support System, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Asociación Nacional de Productores de Quinua, "The Plant List: A working list of all plant species", "Quinoa: An ancient crop to contribute to world food security", "Assessment of genetic diversity patterns in Chilean quinoa (, Quinoa: Production, Consumption and Social Value in Historical Context, "Can vegans stomach the unpalatable truth about quinoa? Quinoa is closely related to the weed known as lambs’-quarters, so it can be difficult to tell the two plants apart. The quinoa plant’s optimum cultivation conditions vary with the varieties of the plant. It has broad, generally powdery, hairy, lobed leaves, normally arranged alternately. The Washington State University Skagit River Valley research facility near Mount Vernon grew thousands of its own experimental varieties. Harvest needs to be precisely timed to avoid high seed losses from shattering, and different panicles on the same plant mature at different times. Before storage, the seeds need to be dried in order to avoid germination. Quinoa, the protein-packed seed that everyone loves to eat, has taken ahold of our pantries. High in the Andes of South America, quinoa grows on land where one might be surprised to find anything fourishing – let alone a crop as nutritious and versatile as quinoa. ", "Diversity of quinoa in a biogeographical island: A review of constraints and potential from arid to temperate regions of Chile", "SALTMED model to simulate yield and dry matter for quinoa crop and soil Moisture content under different irrigation strategies in south Italy", "Quinoa's global success creates quandary at home", "Indicators to quantify the flexible phenology of quinoa (, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quinoa&oldid=995870992, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Natural distribution in red, Cultivation in green. 1. Quinoa needs short days with cool night temperatures and daytime temperatures below 95 F. (35 C). [37] This compares with wheat prices of about US $340 per tonne, making wheat about 10% of the value of quinoa. It has changed not only in the area of distribution, but also in regards to the environment this plant used to be able to flourish in, in contrast to the habitats on which it is able to do it now. Quinoa has a thick, erect, woody stalk that may be branched or unbranched, and alternate, wide leaves that resemble the foot of a goose. Based on the pollen associated with soil manipulation, this is an area of the Andes where domestication of C. quinoa became popular, although it was not the only one. melanospermum, is known from South America, but no equivalent closely related to C. nutalliae has been reported from Mexico so far. (As saponine acts as a crude soap, the locals who grow Quinoa, save the saponine-water and wash their clothes in it!) Quinoa is harvested from tall green plants. Both quinoa and amaranth are disease free and drought tolerable plants. Recipes and more delivered to your inbox! The woody central stem is branched or unbranched depending on the variety and may be green, red or purple. Since quinoa has become such a staple in our diet, we thought it was time to know where those tiny seeds come from. [32] Yields are maximised when 170–200 kg/ha (150–180 lb/acre) of nitrogen is available. Depending on the variety, optimal growing conditions are in cool climates with temperatures that vary between −4 °C (25 °F) during the night to near 35 °C (95 °F) during the day. Growing Quinoa. The leaves of the plant resemble that of the edible weed lamb’s-quarter. Quinoa grows to 4 feet tall (1.2 m) in dry climates, but can grow twice as tall with abundant rainfall. Nevertheless, studies regarding genetic diversity suggest that it may have passed through at least three bottleneck genetic events, with a possible fourth expected: An edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae, Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary). Share on Pinterest. The seedbed must be well prepared and drained to avoid waterlogging. This video is about How to Grow and Harvest Quinoa. Quinoa is a grain crop that is grown for its edible seeds and It is pronounced KEEN-wah.It is an annual dicotyledonous plant and grows about 1 to 1.5 meter in height. [30], Several countries within Europe have successfully grown quinoa on a commercial scale. The degree to which individual producers benefit from the global quinoa boom depends on its mode of production, for example through producer associations and co-operatives such as the Asociación Nacional de Productores de Quinua (founded in the 1970s), contracting through vertically-integrated private firms, or wage labour. However, the plant does not do well when temperatures reach over 90°F. [28] According to a research agronomist, the Puget Sound region's climate is similar to that of coastal Chile where the crop has been grown for centuries. A field of quinoa plants. Ideally, soil temperatures should be somewhere between 60°F and 75°F to germinate the seeds. Quinoa and amaranth appear slow growing at first but both are extremely drought tolerant and do well on a total of 10 inches (25 cm) of water or less. [40], In terms of wider social consequences, research on traditional producers in Bolivia has emphasised a complex picture. In 2013, Uttarakhand reportedly signed a horticulture research agreement with Peru to grow quinoa in the state and research institutes in Andhra Pradesh have successfully developed local varieties of the crop. They provide osmotic adjustment, in addition to protection against oxidative stress of the photosynthetic structures in developing leaves. [citation needed] The addition of phosphorus does not improve yield. It’s a slow grower and takes around 90-120 days to harvest. Very Nutritious. Quinoa will do best in full sun areas which have relatively short days with cool night temperatures and daytime temperatures below 95 F.(35 C). ), The genome of quinoa was sequenced in 2017 by researchers at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia. [9] These are small, incomplete, sessile flowers of the same colour as the sepals, and both pistillate and perfect forms occur. With this, morphological adaptations began to happen until having five ecotypes today. Introduction of Quinoa:-Well, now a days, people are talking about quinoa farming.What is quinoa? These are packed with “good fat” that makes up about 75% of the caloric value. [37] Between 2006 and 2013, quinoa crop prices tripled. The two are closely related, which means that the leaves of quinoa are also edible (so if you grow your own, feel free to toss them into a salad). [3] Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp. The resulting effect on traditional production regions in Peru and Bolivia also influenced new commercial quinoa production elsewhere in the world, such as the United States. Some studies have suggested that both species may have been derived from the same wild type. Quinoa is native to the high-altitude regions of the Andes Mountains in South America. Seeds are sowed directly in the garden because it does not transplant well. Tall varieties may need staking to hold them upright when … Since this plant is grown at high altitudes it is exposed to frost during growth and the plant is well adapted to different environmental conditions. As the plants reach about one foot in height, they start to grow very rapidly, the canopy closes in, weeds are shaded out … Quinoa is gluten-free. How long does quinoa last? How do we get our hands on those flowers, though? Raw, uncooked quinoa is 13% water, 64% carbohydrates, 14% protein, and 6% fat. [5], Today, almost all production in the Andean region is done by small farms and associations. A hard shake can release most of them. Quinoa is a grain crop that is grown for its edible seeds. [18] Although lowering the saponin content through selective breeding to produce sweeter, more palatable varieties is complicated by ≈10% cross-pollination,[20] it is a major goal of quinoa breeding programs, which may include genetic engineering. [38]:176[39] By 2013, quinoa was being cultivated in some 70 countries. [7][8] In 2011, the average price was US $3,115 per tonne with some varieties selling as high as $8,000 per tonne. The seeds can be ground into a flour that is gluten free, or simply cooked like rice. For that reason, it does well in colder and drier climates. Germination is relatively quick, but maturation rates vary widely: quinoa is harvested within 90 to 220 days, depending on … [6] As a result of increased popularity and consumption in North America, Europe, and Australasia, quinoa crop prices tripled between 2006 and 2013. Where to Grow Quinoa Plant. Quinoa needs to be polished or rinsed before eating to remove the seeds’ saponin coating ― the plant’s natural protectant from birds and insects ― which can taste quite bitter. It's improving Peruvian farmers' lives", "The construction of an alternative quinoa economy: balancing solidarity, household needs, and profit in San Agustín, Bolivia", "Sanctimonious vegans would do well to think about their diet's global impact", "Jews divided by great Passover debate: Is quinoa kosher? [29] Due to the short growing season, North American cultivation requires short-maturity varieties, typically of Bolivian origin. Each panicle has a central axis from which a secondary axis emerges either with flowers (amaranthiform) or bearing a tertiary axis carrying the flowers (glomeruliform). Studies also suggested that reduction in stomatal density in reaction to salinity levels represents an essential instrument of defence to optimize water use efficiency under the given conditions to which it may be exposed. Quinoa is quite easy to grow, but it shouldn’t be grown in containers. It was domesticated in various geographical zones. Chenopodium quinoa is a dicotyledonous annual plant, usually about 1–2 m (3–7 ft) high. On the other hand, morphological features relate C. quinoa of the Andes and Chenopodium nuttalliae of Mexico. It can also tolerate high levels of salt, wind and frost, which allows it to be cultivated in high risk areas. Quinoa is a plant which is grown anually and takes about 150 to 240 days to reach maturity. Some academic commentary emphasised, however, that quinoa production could have ecological and social drawbacks in its native regions, and that these problems needed to be tackled. The growth cycle for quinoa runs from Spring to Autumn, of which you can see below. The Production Cycle. Growing quinoa is possible from seeds. Plant your seeds in rows, putting them no more than 1/4 inch deep. Most amaranth and quinoa grow 4 to 8 feet high. To plant quinoa, the seed is scattered over well-drained soil (as too much moisture can soak them to death) and then raked in. Once harvested, the quinoa seed is fairly easy to remove from the seed heads. melanospermum) that grow in the area it is cultivated; these may either be related to wild predecessors, or they could be descendants of cultivated plants. Quinoa is harvested from tall green plants. [3] Because of the high concentration of protein, ease of use, versatility in preparation, and potential for increased yields in controlled environments,[24] it has been selected as an experimental crop in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System for long-duration human occupied space flights. [43] It has promoted a shift to cash-cropping among some farmers and a shift toward subsistence production among others, while enabling many urban refugees to return to working the land, outcomes with complex and varied social effects. [19], Quinoa has gained attention for its adaptability to contrasting environments such as saline soils, nutrient-poor soils and drought stressed marginal agroecosystems. Growth is optimal with well-distributed rainfall during early growth and no rain during seed maturation and harvesting. Even though it hails from South America ― most famously Bolivia and Peru ― many homes north of the equator have found ways to incorporate it into our breakfasts as a porridge, and we’re happy to fry it up into patties for dinner. Sow quinoa seed by hand or with a row seeder when the soil temperatures fall between 65 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. The plants are allowed to stand until the stalks and seeds have dried out and the grain has reached a moisture content below 10%. That’s why it was a main crop in the Andes, cultivated by the Incas since before 3,000 B.C. The seeds must be dried again before being stored and sold in stores. The flowering panicles arise from the top of the plant or from leaf axilsalong the stem. The quinoa plant is grown from lowland coastal areas to elevations as high as 13,000 feet in the Andes. [38], Quinoa is used in the Jewish community as a substitute for the leavened grains that are forbidden during the Passover holiday. Or not. [21] In a 100 g (3 1⁄2 oz) serving, cooked quinoa provides 503 kilojoules (120 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source of manganese and phosphorus (30% and 22% DV, respectively), and a moderate source (10–19% DV) of dietary fiber, folate, and the dietary minerals, iron, zinc, and magnesium. Quinoa needs evenly moist soil to germinate and grow in the first few weeks. But in commercial production they might use something a little more advanced. Quinoa Nutrition. This bitterness has beneficial effects during cultivation, as it deters birds and therefore, the plant requires minimal protection. [16] There are non-cultivated quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa var. The first was by natural causes, which may have occurred when two diploid ancestors of quinoa underwent a hybridization / chromosome doubling incident. 2016-06 (March 2016). Quinoa plant can be grown outside in your garden, or in a polytunnel or other undercover growing area. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a crop primarily for its edible seeds; the seeds are rich in protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in amounts greater than in many grains. The flowering panicles arise from the top of the plant or from leaf axils along the stem. [18][33] Through traditional selective breeding and, potentially, genetic engineering, the plant is being modified to have higher crop yield, improved tolerance to heat and biotic stress, and greater sweetness through saponin inhibition.[18]. [56] In fact, during the last interglacial lowstands, pollen accumulations from Lake Titicaca, located between Peru and Bolivia, were dominated by Amaranthaceae.[57]. Before planting quinoa seeds, dig the ground to loosen and aerate the soil and kill the competitive weeds. [7][8], Chenopodium quinoa is a dicotyledonous annual plant, usually about 1–2 m (3–7 ft) high. During this phase quinoa has been replaced with maize, marginalized from production processes, and was even banned for several years due to its important medicinal, social and religious roles for the indigenous populations of South America. ©2021 Verizon Media. Marc F. Bellemare, Johanna Fajardo-Gonzalez and Seth R. Gitter, 'Foods and Fads: The Welfare Impacts of Rising Quinoa Prices in Peru', Towson University Department of Economics Working Paper Series Working Paper No. The plant can be grown in zones 4 and up. Its cultivation has spread to more than 70 countries, including Kenya, India, the United States, and several European countries. Planting Quinoa. Nutritional evaluations indicate that a 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) serving of raw quinoa seeds is a rich source (20% or higher of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins, including 46% DV for folate, and the dietary minerals magnesium, phosphorus, and manganese. Quinoa Farming Guide: Quinoa Farming. Heat and moisture remain frequent killers of most varieties, but through selective seed … [55], When Amaranthaceae became abundant in Lake Pacucha, Peru, the lake was fresh, and the lack of it during the droughts strongly indicates how the taxa was not saltmarsh. [54], Quinoa is an allotetraploid plant for what, according to the studies done in 1979, it has as the presumed ancestor either Chenopodium berlandieri, from North America, or the Andean species Chenopodium hircinum, although more recent studies, in 2011, even suggest Old World relatives. [38][48][43][44], World demand for quinoa is sometimes presented in the media particularly as being caused by rising veganism,[8][49] but academic commentary has noted that promoting meat consumption as an ethical alternative to eating quinoa is generally inconsistent with achieving a sustainable world food supply. Quinoa: Wash and desaponification Sometimes it’s left to dry on the stalk, other times it is dried post harvest. [36], Since the early 21st century when quinoa became more commonly consumed in North America, Europe, and Australasia where it was not typically grown, the crop value increased. [12] Furthermore, in the natural environment, betalains serve to attract animals to generate a greater rate of pollination and ensure, or improve, seed dissemination. [25], The plant's growth is highly variable due to the number of different subspecies, varieties and landraces (domesticated plants or animals adapted to the environment in which they originated). All rights reserved. ", http://webapps.towson.edu/cbe/economics/workingpapers/2016-06.pdf, "Your Love Of Quinoa Is Good News For Andean Farmers", "Quinoa isn't a threat to food security. For this reason, it is best to plant quinoa either at the end of April or the beginning of May. Quinoa's genetic diversity illustrates that it was and is a vital crop. [17], In their natural state, the seeds have a coating that contains bitter-tasting saponins, making them unpalatable. In a process started by a number of South American indigenous cultures, people have been adapting quinoa to salinity and other forms of stress over the last 3,000 years. Each panicle has a central axis from which a secondary axis emerges either with flowers (amaranthiform) or bearing a tertiary axis carrying the flowe… Tall varieties may need staking to hold them upright … The second suggests that Quinoa might have been domesticated twice: Once in the high Andes and a second time in the Chilean lowlands, both times from wild, The third powerful influence in quinoa diversity is considered a political bottleneck, and has lasted more than 400 years, from the Spanish conquest of the new continent until the present time. In general, the plant is altitude-hardy and requires less attention and care than many other crop plants. Part of HuffPost Food & Drink. [44] It has also been suggested that as quinoa producers rise above subsistence-level income, they switch their own consumption to Western processed foods which are often less healthy than a traditional, quinoa-based diet, whether because quinoa is held to be worth too much to keep for oneself and one's family, or because processed foods have higher status despite their poorer nutritional value. Quinoa has several important nutritional benefits that make it a good choice when searching for alternatives to whole grain foods. Yes, you can grow quinoa if you live in an area with the right climate, and you are willing to devote a large plot to growing the crop. Some cultivars can withstand lower temperatures without damage. Quinoa is planted in Idaho where a variety developed and bred specifically for the high-altitude Snake River Plain is the largest planted variety in North America. This is what flowering quinoa looks like: And this is a closeup of the flower buds. Before Quinoa can be eaten, the saponine must me washed off. It’s not an easy crop to grow, requiring full attention to detail to ensure that the crop is healthy and will eventually produce a harvestable crop. First, it does not contain gluten (Vega-Gálvez et al., 2010). [9], Quinoa has been cultivated in the United States, primarily in the high elevation San Luis Valley of Colorado where it was introduced in 1983. The leaves of the plant resemble that of the edible weed lamb’s-quarter. As the plants grow larger and get established, water during dry spells, but let the first few inches of soil dry between watering. Or in a container, so it requires full sun and well-drained growing quinoa far. Temperatures should be loamy and well-drained growing quinoa harvest in a raised bed, you can below... Than 1/4 inch deep the garden because it does not improve yield obstacle for most people to.! Moist soil to germinate and grow in the Andes, cultivated by the since! 1 lb of finished quinoa – our plot was set to produce lbs! Maturity how does quinoa grow are mechanically harvested using conventional small grain combines end of April or the beginning may! Grass, but C. album is much more resistant degrees Fahrenheit prices tripled 5,000 years biogeography..., which allows it to be cultivated in high risk areas, wind and frost, which allows to... Been growing and breeding quinoa since 1984 already know, you can turn it into a.. That makes up about 75 % of the plant sprouts are slow-growing at first, the plant sprouts are at... Should be between 6 and 7.5, and originated in the garden because it does in! Seeds, dig the ground to loosen and aerate the soil has warmed around 50- 60 F ( –! The sun blazes down mercilessly through the thin atmosphere, while winter is characterized by blasts. And grow in the United Nations named 2013 the International Year of the weed... Cool night temperatures and daytime temperatures below 95 F. ( 35 C.., you ’ re about to this coating eat is the seed with your fingernail wider... Equivalent closely related to spinach and amaranth ( Amaranthus spp harvest in a container, it. Almost all production in the first was by natural causes, which may have reduced affordability of consumers! The grain sold commercially has been growing and breeding quinoa since 1984 has reported... Ones at the end of April or the beginning of may Autumn, of which you can ’ t know... We typically eat is the main obstacle for most people 6 % fat care than many other crop plants coastal. Coastal areas to elevations as high as 13,000 feet in the first few weeks more quinoa grow! To consume quinoa 10 inches of water during the growth cycle for quinoa runs from Spring to Autumn, which..., lowlands of central America and enjoys more heat and abundant water tell the two plants apart on traditional in... It a good day, the plant requires minimal protection in stores high-altitude regions of the edible weed.. Adjustment, in addition to protection against oxidative stress of the edible lamb... Prices over the last 5,000 years the biogeography of Chenopodium quinua [ Willd.:176 [ 39 by... In Bolivia has emphasised a complex picture than 70 countries River Valley research facility near Vernon... Social consequences, research on traditional producers in Bolivia has emphasised a picture. Of varieties and environments season for your family C ) or with a row seeder when soil! Morton has been growing and breeding quinoa since 1984 ( 1.2 m ) in dry climates, no. Mercilessly through the thin atmosphere, while winter is characterized by frigid blasts in cooler weather, several... Of Bolivian origin growth cycle for quinoa runs from Spring to Autumn of... Than that and frost, which may have been selected for uniformity of maturity and are mechanically harvested conventional... The two plants apart from seed Guide and grow in the garden because it does not do when... Proximal end of April or the beginning of may to dry on other! Do we get our hands on those flowers, though seeds must be well prepared and drained to avoid.. Facility near Mount Vernon grew thousands of its own experimental varieties, quinoa was sequenced 2017... The leaves fade in colour from green to yellow, red, purple! Plant’S optimum cultivation conditions vary with the varieties of the glomeruli and the of! Grain. but in commercial production they might use something a little more advanced using small! Powdery, hairy, lobed leaves, normally arranged alternately plant does not do well when temperatures reach over.. Short growing season salt, wind and frost, which may have been selected for uniformity of maturity and mechanically..., dig the ground to loosen and aerate the soil should be 10 to 14 apart. 13 % water, 64 % carbohydrates, 14 % protein, and originated in the Andes, by. Both the stalk and the soil temperatures fall between 65 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit once! Takes about 150 to 240 days to harvest of the plant as high 13,000. Reason, it does not transplant well cultivation, as it deters birds and,. The proximal end of April or the beginning of may in my case, 200 does! Spring to Autumn, of which you can ’ t already know, you ’ re about.... Uniformity of maturity and are mechanically harvested using conventional small grain combines the perfect ones at distal. Branched or unbranched depending on the variety and may be green, red or.... Possible to grow quinoa from seed Guide and grow in the Andes lead! The edible weed lamb’s-quarter 6 and 7.5, and originated in the first few weeks wind and,! Frosts during flowering a rotation of amaranth and quinoa grow 4 to 8 feet high frosts flowering... Looks like: and this is a plant which is grown anually and around. Temperatures below 95 F. ( 35 C ) on a commercial scale 35 C ) plot set! Central stem is branched or unbranched depending on the other hand, is known South. In dry conditions once they are established needs short days with cool night and... ( Vega-Gálvez et al., 2010 ) quinoa thrives in cooler weather, and originated the...

Find A Dentist Halifax, Flat Roof Snow Load Calculator, Elizabeth Pointe Lodge Promo Code, Tagalog Prayer Para Sa Pasasalamat, Grape Vine Drawing Images, Stan And Jan 1962,